Brushes and bats are very old technologies, in western countries, and still used everywhere.
The brushes are very efficient, but destroy a little bit the fibers of the clothes.
The batting system creates a huge water pressure into the clothe and also a torsion of the fibers.
Both technologies need cycling movements, and are somtimes noisy.
It’s possible to adapt a brushing system to the arm of the windmill washing machine described in this site.